Playing with Service Workers

3-4 minute read

Yesterday, I stumbled upon Introduction to Progressive Web Apps on MDN and spent quite some time with Service Workers in particular. I don’t exactly remember what motivated me to pursue this, but it was a fun little ride. Thought I’d share how cool PWAs are!

Progressive Web Applications

Progressive Web Applications are a set of practices and Web APIs (in client browsers) to provide web applications with some native app like functionalities such as push notifications, background data sync, offline access, etc. Bare minimum requirements to turn any web app into a PWA are

If you want to learn about PWAs in-depth, head on to this MDN series.

Service Workers

A service worker is a script written in Javascript which runs separately from rest of the page. It can’t access a page’s DOM or interact with users. Its only purpose is to intercept install events and functional events like fetch, push and sync. It can also send or receive messages to or from any active clients (tabs or windows). There is another great article about Service Worker Lifecycle at Google Developers portal.

Key Events


It is the first event a service worker gets. It is only received once per service worker. If you modify your service worker code, the browser will treat it as a different service worker and it will receive its own install event. install event is a safe place to cache static resources that don’t change often. There are some best practices mentioned in MDN and Google Developers articles, but here’s how I did it. The self.skipWaiting() call activates it as soon as it finishes installing.

The following snippet also contains some Liquid (Jekyll) template code embedded in JavaScript comments. The template essentially generates a list of static files to add to cache during service worker installation.


It is also received only once after a service worker has finished installing. This is a good place to clean up old caches. I didn’t implement any cache cleanup because this site doesn’t generate that much data. self.clients.claim() (in conjunction with self.skipWaiting()) installs the new version of the service worker (if available) and takes over any active clients that were previously being handled by an older version.


This event is triggered every time a controlled client makes a new request. This is a place where caching strategies are implemented, e.g., whether to serve resources from cache or network. I used two different caching strategies for different resources. The first one serves the assets directly from the cache and triggers a cache update for every request. The second serves all other resources directly from the network and caches them for offline access.


A sync is a functional event like fetch. Clients can request a sync to execute a workload in the background. The workload will continue to execute even if the browser is closed. Google Developers portal has another awesome article to learn sync events with a demo.


A push event is used for subscribing to push notification from a remote service. I haven’t read much about it yet, but this article is next on my reading list.

Installable Web Apps (Add to Home screen)

To make your PWA installable (browsers asking users to add a website to home screen), you’ll need to add a Web Manifest in addition to the service worker. It is a JSON file with the predefined schema.

Note: I am using Liquid (Jekyll) template code to inject appropriate values when GitHub Pages generates my site.


PWAs are a great replacement for apps that only rely on data and doesn’t need much native functionality. In 2015, Flipkart launched Flipkart Lite, a PWA version of its mobile web site and seen a huge bump in conversion rates. Twitter and Instagram are other great examples.